Drawing the Human Head book. Read 18 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. In extraordinary drawings, Hogarth shows how to draw the. This is the best "how to" drawing book for beginner artists interested in drawing the human head. it's a great introduction to the basics and it may give art. The Artist's Complete Guide to Drawing the Head [William Maughan] on site. com. In this innovative guide, master art instructor William Maughan demonstrates how to create a realistic human likeness by Sold by: Book Depository US.
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For artists who want to get up to speed with drawing heads, Drawing the Human Head will get you creating them in no time. There are six. Drawing The Human Head by Burne Hogarth, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. In extraordinary drawings, Hogarth shows how to draw the head from every earn your way to a free book! Drawing the Human Head by Burne Hogarth.
In dia- grammatic drawings, the read- er follows the courses of the three major wrinkle patterns; studies the types of wrinkles caused by tension, pressure, sag, and shrinkage; and watches the interaction of the wrinkle patterns.
To explain the subtle changes that take place from childhood to old age, a series of drawings follow the develop- ment of a single head from birth to the age of eighty, trac- ing the changes in proportions and facial detail that happen gradually, year by year. An extensive series of drawings describes the general characteristics of the three basic head types: The immense va- riety of human faces and fea- tures is emphasized in a gal- lery of drawings surveying the various head types as they appear in racial and ethnic groups around the world.
Drawing the Human Head concludes with a selection of great heads in sculpture, paint- ing, drawing, and the graphic arts, from the time of the Greeks to the art of our own century. The purpose of this gallery is to document the prin- ciples of head construction upon which this book is based.
The reader will discover a re- markable continuity from the work of anonymous Greek and Roman sculptors, through the great artists of the Renais- sance and Baroque periods, down to such contemporary masters as Picasso and Rouault. All have drawn strength and inspiration from the classical conception of the head which is summarized in these pages by a masterful draftsman and an outstanding teacher.
Donald Holden The second and lesser part is the tapered half-cut cylinder of the face and lower jaw: Cranial Mass The cranial mass is quite even and regular: Facial Mass, Extreme Up View.
Contour of Cranial Mass Seen from the side, the cranial mass curves upward from the mounded ridge of bone just above the rim of the eye socket. This is the superciliary arch or visor of the brow.
Beginning at the frontal depression in the bridge of the nose the cranium rises up the forehead to the vault of the skull and sweeps backward across the crown in a great curve toward the lower occipital bulge at the base of the head. The base line of the skull then proceeds horizon- tally forward to meet the hinge of the jaw.
From the jaw hinge, the brain case line con- tinues obliquely upward to the starting point at the bridge of the nose. This line forms the boundary between the two great masses of the head: At the point of the nose, the facial mass scoops sharply inward and swings over the bulge of the teeth to the protruding mound of the chin. From here, the contour moves angularly up the lower edge of the jaw line to the angle of the jaw.
Here it rises steeply, almost vertically, to the jaw hinge in the base of the head. The boundary line, connecting the hinge with the nose bridge, di- vides the facial mass from the cranial mass. Proportions and Measurements The size relations between the cranial mass and the facial mass reveal two different sets of proportions. STEP 1 Frontally, the head, with its two great masses, is clearly egg-shaped. If you have drawn the egg properly, the center line A-B should be three times the length of the horizontal line C-D.
Thus, the total width. This line reveals the equal measures of the two major masses: The downward bulge will identify the lower jaw.
The backward bulge the widest part of the horizontal egg becomes the back of the head. Note that the height A-B and width C-D of the side view head are equal. Finally, if you visualize the upper egg as the cranial mass, you will see that the cranial mass is twice the size of the facial mass. See how easily a difficult view of the head may be solved by starting the drawing with the initial placement of the two great masses.
These are the rigid framework or support struc- tures of the body, upon which all the soft, limber, or supple tissues depend. Having es- tablished the basic form of the two great masses, we will look more closely at the form struc- tures which give the brain case and the facial region their spe- cial qualities. We shall see how the upper mass becomes a skull and how the lower mass becomes a face with features.
We shall not describe these structures as mere anatomical parts, but as forms which are used in drawing the head. On the frontal curve of the dome, we see the shell of the forehead frontal bone which rises to the mid-region of the crown. On top, we see the crown or vault of the dome parietal bone which partly covers the top, sides, and rear of the head. In back, we see the rear bulge occipital bone which encases the skull base. On the side of the skull, we see the slightly concave temple wall temporal bone.
In the lower front region we see the heavy visor of the brow superciliary arch. This prominence is actually a con- tinuation of the forehead fron- tal bone, but it is useful to vi- sualize it as a separate form.
The top edge of this bulge aligns with the upper eyelid. Indeed, the visual impact of the face and its features is so great that the student must force himself never to forget the relative proportions of the two great masses. Failure to give the cranial mass its cor- rect size always labels a draw- ing as amateurish. In the fa- cial mass there are ten visually prominent forms.
One of these is primary and dominant: The remaining nine are the eyes, nose, and other features. Lower Jaw Mandible The jaw is the decisive form in producing the contour of the face as a whole.
It is the largest bone structure of the facial mass. Beyond this, it has the unique characteristic of being the only movable bone struc- ture of the head. In general, the lower jaw is shaped like a horseshoe. Horseshoe of Jaw: Just above is the dental arch 2 of the lower teeth.
As the arch curves back and ends, the jaw widens and develops two broad, plate- like structures 3 the ra- mus which rise steeply to each jaw hinge 4 alongside the ears. The jaw ends in two spur- like formations above each ramus, neither of which ap- pears on the external aspect of the face.
From the chin, it gently rises 12 to 15 degrees up to the angle of the jaw. From the angle or jaw corner, the contour is a steep diagonal to the jaw hinge.
The chin is angular, The jaw corners are aligned parallel with the chin. The ramus projections are widespread and equal in height. Facial Features The nine secondary forms of the face, small as they are, have the greatest visual im- pact. The subtle differences in these forms are what make one face different from another.
Although the visor or brow ridge is really part of the cra- nium, note that we also include it here as a facial feature. The nine secondary feature forms are: Brow ridge or visor of the cranial cap, widespread and horizontally arched across the mid-facial region. Tapered Wedge of the nose, descending steeply from under the brow ridge. Eye socket, depressed and placed against both sides of the nose, opening immediately below the arch of the brow.
Cheek bones, thickly formed, mounded along the lower out- side rim of each eye socket. Barrel of the mouth, rounded and heavy-set, protruding be- low the prominent overhang of the nose. Box of the chin, below the mouth barrel and farther for- ward.
Angle of the lower jaw or jaw corner, forming the rear edge of the facial area. Side arch of the cheek bone, starting from the cheek bone, swept back and arched toward the mid-ear. Shell of the ear, beyond the upper edge of the jaw, at the side of the face. This is the exact midpoint of the head. Here, at the midway line, the head is five eye-lengths wide. The brow ridge itself is four eye-lengths wide. NOSE Centrally located in the facial mass, the tapered wedge of the nose descends to a point mid- way between the bridge of the nose and the base of the chin.
The width of the nose at its base is equal to the width of the eye.
Distances from bridge to midway point to base of chin are equal. Base of nose is one eye wide. The outer edge of the socket lies just above the projecting cheek bone. In frontal views, the in- ner depression of the cheek bone is roughly midway along a diagonal line 30 degrees from the eye socket to the angle of the jaw. Cheek bone aligns with base of nose.
The sides of the barrel align with the centers of the eye sockets. At its Widest point, the chin box is equal to the width of the mouth barrel. EAR The ear begins at a line drawn up from the rear edge of the jaw. The ear base aligns with the base of the skull, the base of the cheek bone, and the base of the nose. The top of the ear aligns with the protruding brow ridge. The peak of the eyebrow hair will identify the height of the ear, in rela- tion to the brow.
The arch ends just below the middle of the ear, in line with the back edge of the jaw. Two of these are carried to a new phase of form development. Drawing the eye socket, we must con- sider the eyeball and the eye- lids. Eye Almost spherical and about one inch in diameter, the eyeball lies within the deep cavity the orbit of the eye, cushioned in fatty tissue and situated partly to the front of the socket open- ing.
On all sides of the socket rim, the eye is protected by great projecting structures of bone: Covering the exposed bulge of the eyeball are the upper and lower eye- lids. The upper lid is more active and moveable than the lower. It is also the larger of the two lids and more fully curved. The wider arc of the upper lid swings around the eyeball at its equatorial middle. The lower lid curves around a small are at the base of the eyeball.
The eye opening is not a symmetrical almond shape. Axis of Eye: Three-Quarter Up View It consists of two parts: Both parts of the orbicularis muscle close the eye by compression.
The greater orbital part vigorously contracts the region around the socket, while the eyelids cur- tain the eye briskly but gently. Eye Muscles Nose In general form, the nose is a triangular, wedge-shaped block, narrow and depressed at its root under the brow ridge, broad and prominent at its base in the mid-region of the face.
The hook of the nose attaches to the pillars of the upper lip. Somewhat below this point, the nostril wings reach their high point. Septal Cartilage 45 Mouth The substructure of the mouth is formed by the two great den- tal arches of the teeth: Set together, both arches support the curving mouth barrel.
LI PS Overlying the arches of the upper and lower jaws is the broad, circular mouth muscle orbicularis oris , with its prominently developed lip for- mations. The two edges of the philtrum are the pillars of the lip. Two elliptical lobes develop outward from the center to form the arms of the W, while the middle of the lip dips to receive the tubercle from above.
Both lips have thin marginal rims. W Formation Because it covers the greater dental arch of the upper teeth, the upper lip is the longer of the two. The lower lip is therefore recessed on the arch of the lower row of teeth. It is recessed 30 degrees in relation to the upper lip.
Side view shows recessed lower lip. Upper lip is wider, more arched. In such cases, the lower lip pro- trudes and the upper lip recedes. Its placement on the free-moving lower jaw guarantees greater activity. The lower lip is also moved by an ample set of lower mouth, chin, and jaw muscles. In Ear The ear is shell-shaped in form and general structure.
Its outer contour is formed like a C, wider at the top and nar- rower at the base. In the cen- ter, it has a bowl-like depres- sion, the corwha, large enough to admit the curve of the thumb. The inner rim anti- helix , divides at the top into two arms, forming a bent Y shape. Below the tragus is a small notch, just under and outside the ear canal opening.
The curve of the helix turns into the bowl of the ear and implants itself in the central wall. The ear divides vertically into three generally equal parts. First part: Second part: The tragus is at the exact midpoint of the ear. Third part: The bottom of the lobe aligns with the base of the nose.
This measure occurs only at the highest part of the ear, the helix or outer rim. Seen from the back, the outer rim of the ear stands away from the head at an angle of almost 20 degrees. This view clearly reveals the rounded back wall of the central bowl. A -o-on-agar-. The most important muscles are those which produce the larger surface forms, the visu- ally prominent masses.
Pri- marily, these are the muscles of the mouth and jaw. The eye and socket muscles are sec- ondary. The others are minor, since they are barely seen.
Function of Anatomy The purpose of artistic anat- omy is not to dissect and ex- pose muscles, but to analyze and evaluate forms. The artist studies anatomy not as an end in itself, but as a groundwork for the expressive interpreta- Eye and Socket Muscles tion of visual form. To draw the movement of the head means to record the changing aspects and relations of head forms when the head changes position. How do we draw the varied views of the head? How are the major masses related when the head changes direction?
How are the features expressed when seen from above and below? When the head moves, a new set of form rela- tions appears. The student must strive to observe these changes and draw them with- out distortion. The simple relations of the cranial and facial masses, front and side, have been explained in Chapter 1. A question arises about the back of the head.
How much of the cranial bulge will be shown at the rear in relation to a given amount of turn? Here is a simple solution.
Constructing a Rotating Head Step 1: Draw a full front view head shape in correct propor- tion. Step 2: Now draw horizontal A-B and vertical C-D lines which divide the ovoid shape at the midpoint in both directions. These are the axis lines: Our chief interest is in the vertical axis, the center line which records every side- wise movement of the face and features. To make the head turn from a front view to a new position, draw a new ver- tical center line C-E-D from crown to chin.
This line curves to show the characteristic bulge of the ovoid mass. The midpoint E of the curve is at the horizontal brow line. Keep brow line level and un- changed. Step 4: On this curved line C-E-D , the new center of the face, sketch the wedge of the nose in three-quarter view.
Then lightly draw the lips and a new outline on the right side of the face. This new outline must be held generally within the original ovoid shape. Step 5: Now, how much of the cranium will appear at the rear? The answer is clear. The amount of turn the head makes in front will produce a similar amount of turn in back. Mea- sure the distance between the midpoint of old center line F and the midpoint of the new center line E. Add this mea- sure to the head at the rear A-G. This gives you the cor- rect amount of cranial bulge in back, corresponding to the amount of turn in front.
Mea- surement A-G equals E-F. Drawing a Three-Quarter View F With these measurement lines in place, complete the shape of the skull and draw in the fea- tures. Check the horizontal line-up of the nose base, cheek bone, ear, and skull base.
The edge of the mouth and chin should align with the center of the eye. The ear should attach on a horizontal line drawn from the outside corner of the eye. In all views, note how each measure A-B equals measure C-D. Is the foregoing method reliable for any stage in the rotation of the head? It is. Here is the proof. Suppose that we wish to give the head its greatest possible rotation, from a front view to a full side view.
First, we draw the front ovoid shape and divide it, as before, in halves. Our method gives us a good side view head. But is it proportionally correct? Recall Chapter 1, in which we demon- strated that the side view head divides vertically into three equal parts. Measure the above head: These are the placement of the side plane A-B and jaw line C-D.
The side plane, which begins at the corner of the brow, changes with every turn of the head. But the jaw line tends to remain unchanged re- gardless of the rotation!
This curvature means that when the head turns, the side plane of the head C-D rotates in the same proportion as the center line E-F. Side Plane The side plane of the face be- gins decisively at the brow point, just above the outside corner of the eye.
Here the front and side planes meet, then fall obliquely inward to the cheek bone, mouth edge, and chin. Mandible Block The mandible provides structure for the chin and teeth. The mandible completes the skull when put together with the cranium. Facial structure that the mandible holds include the mouth, cheek, chin, and the jaw line. A block is now used to represent the mandible and is attached to the sphere. The top end of the block is attach to the brow line of the sphere.
Different Angles The angle of the head should be determined at the beginning of drawing the sphere. Here are some of the axis that affects the angles that you are going for. Dividing The Face After you have established the angle of the sphere cranium and added the block mandible ,it is time to divide the face into three section.
First is from the the hairline down to the eye brow. You will notice that the hairline is aligned with the top of the oval. Second is from the eyebrow, which is aligned to the middle of the oval, to the nose just under the ears and the third is from the end of the nose down to the chin which is about the same length of the other two section.
The length of the third section that ends at the chin is similar to the length of half the oval shape. The length changes depending on the perspective you are doing.
Now that you have the proper head structure established, it is easier to add the facial features to the head.
Recommended Books Drawing The Human Head by Burne Hogarth Although taking a formal course of study in human anatomy will give you greater depth in drawing the human head as far as proportion is concerned, this book does go into more depth than a course would in terms of facial features. Content is limited in breadth, but goes into good depth on multicultural features and aging. But after you have practiced from this book hard enough you will find that your life drawing speed and skill is miles further than when you started, I also recommend the other books by burne hogarth, dynamic anatomy, drawing dynamic hands, dynamic heads, dynamic light and shade and dynamic wrinkles and drapery.
Only one word of caution its very easy to get influenced by burne hogarths work, and your work might start looking like a clone of his. So the key is get inspired not influenced, keep your own style and use this book to add to that. Drawing Human Anatomy by Giovanni Civardi Why is this book simply the finest reference book on human anatomy, you ask? Because it clearly and succinctly itemizes the various muscle and bones structures of the human body.
It is detailed enough so that even the most experienced artist will find this reference material useful, yet it only emphasizes the details that are relevant to the artist so that even a novice can use this book. You simply cannot find another book on the market that itemizes the human anatomy in such a succinct and useful manner!
For beginners, I strongly recommend pairing this reference material with a book that teaches the basic techniques of drawing the human anatomy. Drawing Cutting Edge Comics by Christopher Hart I have almost every single book on comic book art written in the last ten years, and this one tops them all. By far. The tips and tricks are indispensable for anyone drawing the human form or face, regardless of the style.
We thank our friends at AmericasCardroomBonusCode. Read their review of the Americas Cardroom Poker download here. Apr 20, Maduranga is currently reading it. A great book. I feel that learning to draw the perfect head first makes it much easier to draw all other imperfect heads. Bianca Arruda rated it liked it Jan 10, Beth Vargas rated it really liked it Oct 26, Lesly rated it really liked it Aug 11, Philip Mentzingen rated it really liked it Jul 13, Simayunshan rated it liked it Apr 18, Natalia Rb rated it it was amazing Aug 17, William rated it really liked it Mar 23, Raja Faiz rated it it was amazing Mar 14, Amla Mao rated it it was amazing May 21, Billy Toye rated it it was amazing Jun 14, Sami rated it it was amazing Dec 02, Koson rated it it was amazing Jul 10, Gabriel Moray rated it it was amazing Dec 19, P J Ashcroft Klemm rated it it was amazing Aug 25, There are no discussion topics on this book yet.
Readers also enjoyed. About Burne Hogarth. Burne Hogarth. Burne Hogarth started young. Born in , he was enrolled in the Chicago Art Institute at the age of 12 and an assistant cartoonist at Associated Editors' Syndicate at At the age of 26, he was chosen from a pool of a dozen applicants as Hal Foster's successor on the United Features Syndicate strip, "Tarzan".
His first strip, very much in Foster's style, appeared May 9, It wasn't long be Burne Hogarth started young. It wasn't long before he abandoned the attempt to maintain the original look of the strip and brought his own dynamic style to the Sunday comics page. He was able to pass his unique methods on illustration to his students in the classroom and, in , to the readers of his first book, Dynamic Anatomy.
During his years teaching, Hogarth authored a number of anatomy and drawing books that have become standard references for artists of every sort, including computer animators. Dynamic Anatomy and Drawing the Human Head were followed by further investigations of the human form. Dynamic Light and Shade and Dynamic Wrinkles and Drapery explored other aspects relative to rendering the figure.
After more than 20 years away from strip work and being hailed in Europe as "the Michelangelo of the comic strip," Hogarth returned to sequential art in with his groundbreaking Tarzan of the Apes , a large format hardbound book published by Watson Guptill in 11 languages. It marks the beginning of the sober volume of integrated pictorial fiction, what is currently understood to be a graphic novel. Burne Hogarth passed away in at the age of Books by Burne Hogarth.
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