This standard is issued under the fixed designation D ; the number 1 This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D on Plastics. ASTM D_军事/政治_人文社科_专业资料. Scope This test method covers the determination of the ignition loss of cured reinforced resins. Signi?cance and Use This test method can be used to obtain the ignition loss of a cured reinforced resin sample. ASTM D Standard Test Method for Ignition Loss of Cured Reinforced Resins - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. This test.
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digital formats such us: paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, and another was calculated using a burn off test according to ASTM D The. Cut three specimens from each laminate for a resin burn-off test according to the ASTM D specifications Place each specimen in a. The burn-off technique is an adaptation of the conventional matrix burn-off (e.g., ASTM D ). Because of the aramid reinforcement, they raised the.
Originally approved in Last previous edition approved in as D - DOI: This test method can also be used to examine the? Apparatus 5. Test Specimen 6.
NOTE 2—It is often convenient to use samples obtained from specimens that have been tested for mechanical properties such as?
Specimens obtained from these samples must be dry and the fractured areas removed, leaving square, unfrayed faces, before being weighed and ignited. NOTE 3—Materials that have gross differences in the ratio of resin to reinforcement within an area as small as 2.
If larger specimens are utilized, it will be necessary to cut into approximately 2.
No further reproductions authorized. D — 11 7.
Conditioning 7. The conditioning is not required if the test is only performed to examine the? Procedure 8. Cool to room temperature in a desiccator and weigh to the nearest 1.
The desiccator is not required if the test is performed only to examine the? Heat the crucible and specimen in a bunsen? Maintain such a temperature that the specimen burns at a uniform and moderate rate until only ash and carbon remain when the burning ceases.
NOTE 4—It is not absolutely necessary to ignite the specimen in a bunsen? Care must be taken that the ignition does not proceed so rapidly that there will be a mechanical loss of the noncombustible residue. Cool the crucible to room temperature in a desiccator and weight to the nearest 1. NOTE 5—The time for the carbonaceous residue to disappear is dependent largely on the specimen geometry.
It can be up to 6 h but is usually much less. Calculations 9. Report If only glass reinforcement and organic resin were present, the ignition loss can be considered to be the resin content. The results of the simulation were compared to experimental observations. The simulation suggested that clogging occurs if a space is narrower than twice the diameter of the largest particles. Three particle size regions were considered by Frischfelds et al.
When they doubled the size of the particles during flow simulation, the overall clogging increased. The particles formed bridges in the channels between fibre bundles.
This built up a pressure gradient that pumped particles into the larger openings inside the bundle. Particles enter spaces of the fibre bundle until they get trapped and the further motion of particles at that location is not possible.
Experimental results showed a higher accumulation of particles at the front of the fibre bundle, as predicted by the model.
Elgafy et al. They found that the interactions between the microfibre sidewalls and the interfacial fluid layers have a tendency to reduce the flow velocity, causing an attraction of the flow to the microfibre sidewalls.
After some time, the flow passages may be blocked. Chohra et al. The authors also performed an experimental study on the behaviour of microparticles in dual-scale fibrous media to validate the proposed model.
They injected particle-filled resin suspensions along the perpendicular direction of the fibre mats and measured the amount of filtered particles within each layer after rinsing the layers and collecting the particles.
Nordlund et al. In the two studies mentioned above, liquid suspensions were investigated instead of fully cured composites. Erdal et al. This model was improved by Lefevre et al. The authors found another type of behaviour: the filler concentration along the composite part was merely varying compared to the model presented by Erdal et al. They found a decrease in filler concentration near the inlet, which was attributed to retention, whereas the accretion near the outlet was assumed to depend on a liquid depletion mechanism in the suspension in the flow front area.
These phenomena were taken into account during the improvement of the filtration model. In another paper, Lefevre et al.
According to them, the flow results from a competition between a low permeability and viscosity at the mould inlet and a high permeability and viscosity at the outlet. As the fibrous preform retains fillers, the permeability of the new filter system consisting of the fibrous preform and the retained particles had to be evaluated.
Their model also provided clogging detection by monitoring the evolution of the porosity with respect to time: when the porosity was zero, there was no more available volume for the suspension flow. However, most of them are based on optical methods such as scanning electron microscopy SEM or transmission electron microscopy TEM. In many research papers, SEM is combined with other techniques, e. Yum et al. The matrix resin used was an epoxy system consisting of a bisphenol-A resin with an amine hardener.